2014 | UN Secretary-General Report February 2014 on the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID)
This report provides an analysis of the current conflict in Sudan, identifying its root causes as well as additional factors that have perpetuated and aggravated the violence. These include demographic and climate changes, the continuing marginalization of Darfur by Khartoum, and the dramatic economic decline of the country after the secession of South Sudan. As a result of the separation of its southern region, Sudan lost three quarters of its oil production. Those losses were compounded by other serious economic challenges, including unsustainable external debt, an annual budget deficit and bilateral economic sanctions. The Sudanese government lost its ability to finance the paramilitary units that previously supported the state's military forces. In search of the alternative sources of revenue the members of those units turned to violence, fighting with the civilians for the control of natural resources and minerals. The Report stresses also the weak rule of law and an overall climate of impunity.
Deterioration of the situation in Sudan has also resulted in the unification of four of the main armed rebel movements coming from Darfur, Southern Kordofan and the Blue Nile region. Together they have formed the Sudan Revolutionary Front which has recently adopted a national policy agenda and presented it to the government of Sudan.
The report goes on to gives detail of the main strategies adopted by UNAMID to date and lists the major challenges it currently faces in trying effectively to discharge its mandate. In particular, the Mission works to increase access to justice by rehabilitating court facilities, transporting judges to rural areas for “mobile court” hearings and training traditional community leaders. In addition, UNAMID collaborates with United Nations Development Programme to provide legal assistance to pre-trial detainees. The maintenance of emergency and national security laws that allow the authorities to arrest and detain citizens without charge for prolonged periods, however, severely limits the development of the judicial sector.