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1949 | The Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols

The Geneva Conventions of 1949 are core documents of international humanitarian law. Geneva Conventions I-IV Arts 51/52/131/148 respectively provide as follows: “No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself or any other High Contracting Party of any liability incurred by itself or by another High Contracting Party in respect of breaches referred to in the preceding Article [enumerating the grave breaches].”

Article 91 of Additional Protocol I provides that: “The liability of parties to a conflict to pay compensation for violations of IHL committed by persons forming part of their armed forces could entail an obligation to compensate not only States but also individual victims."