2011 | Doha Document for Peace in Darfur
The Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD) was finalized at the All Darfur Stakeholders Conference in May 2011, in Doha, Qatar. On 14 July, the Government of Sudan and the Liberation and Justice Movement signed a protocol agreement committing themselves to the DDPD, which became a framework for the comprehensive peace process in Darfur.
Apart from imposing an obligation on the parties to the Agreement to ensure that all persons enjoy and exercise all of the rights and freedoms enshrined in it, the Document envisages the creation of a number of important institutions which have to facilitate the peace building process. These institutions include the National Human Rights Commission, the Darfur Regional Authority, the Judicial Service Commission, and the Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission (see Articles 1, 10, 58). Their primary responsibilities are to protect and promote human rights, guarantee the representation of the people of Darfur in their national judicial institutions and provide them with adequate compensation for grievances suffered. Another organ, the Special Court for Darfur, has been granted jurisdiction over gross violations of human rights and serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in Darfur, since February 2003 (Article 59). It should be noted that the Document devotes special attention to the protection of victims and witnesses participating in court proceedings.
A separate chapter of the Agreement regulates the procedure for compensation of harm and losses that victims of the conflict have incurred (Article 43). According to the Document, justice can only be achieved if all the perpetrators of violations of human rights and international humanitarian law are held accountable. To that end a special transitional justice mechanism for remedies and for the legal accountability of offenders will be adopted. It could be used along with the traditional mechanisms if they are impartial, independent and function in accordance with the international human rights standards (Article 55).